STUDIES AND DOCUMENTS

Februarie 27, 2007 at 9:49 pm

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ARCHBISHOP VALERIAN TRIFA : ROMANIAN LANGUAGE WRITER

The achievements of Archbishop Valerian D. Trifa were very numer­ous, and in many areas of activity: as a spiritual leader, as an administra­tor, and as an editor. However, one of his most remarkable and very rich activities, that of writer, was some­how less emphasized.
In this area, as in all his activities, he was a man of action, not so much preoccupied with „why” but rather with „how.” That was how to find the best solution to move things for­ward. Consequently, as a writer, he manifested himself not as an author of scholarly tomes, but as the author of not so lengthy and very direct and to the point articles.
In fact, he was a journalist (writ­ing and administering newspapers) from a very young age, so young that one may be tempted to say that he was born a journalist. But in this area, his activity reached its peak in the United States, and the contents of his writings addressed problems pertain­ing to the Romanian-American com­munity. For this reason, Archbishop Valerian will remain not only as a remarkable Romanian language writer of the Romanian-American group, but also as one to have a major impact upon this community by writing in Romanian.
In their overwhelming majority, his writings were published in the „Solia,” the official organ of the Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America. His passion and dedication for this activity was probably equaled only by his humbleness. Few people were aware, or are aware, that for many years, Archbishop Valerian was the author of most of the articles pub­lished in „Solia,” and that he was also its editor, administrator, and proofreader. In fact, the only articles he signed were the Pastoral Letters. According to their content, his ar­ticles could be divided into theologi­cal, pastoral, and educational.
In the theological articles, Arch­bishop Valerian was an
>>>>>
ALEXANDRU NEMOIANU

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HISTORICAL PROGRESS AND CONTINUITY

Historical progress has often been thought to be linear or like a spiral. In fact, historical progress moves in circles that add one to the other con­centrically. History expands continu­ously, and circle (or cycle) after circle makes this expansion possible. It is quite similar on an individual or per­sonal level. As human beings, we are conditioned biologically. We have to repeat a biological cycle; and for this reason, and superficially considered, those cycles seem identical. But in fact, not a single individual cycle (or existence) is identical to a previous one. This is true even more so in the case of the historical cycles experi­enced by large communities or insti­tutions. In this huge variety resides our freedom and our responsibility. Each individual and each generation is able and has the duty to make a choice: and, that choice (or accumu­lation of choices) is the mark that makes their respective existence unique.

In the case of the historical cycles or the largest communities or institu­tions, there always is a moment when the quantitative accumulation of choices changes into a new quality. That is the „moment of definition” that will characterize the respective historical period. This historical dem­onstration is rare for the historical development of all Romanian-Ameri­can institutions, including the Roma­nian Orthodox Episcopate of America.

The evolution of the Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America is similar to that of the Romanian-American community in its entirety. This evolution follows a pattern that is similar for all „ethnic” groups and institutions from America. In order to control their lives in the new envi­ronment, the „newcomers” (that is the new immigrants) established their own institutions (parishes, societies) and pretty much they stayed together. In this way, they created for them­selves a sense of security, or as the sociologist Erich Fromm said: „This identity … gives the individual secu­rity. He belongs to, he is rooted in a structuralized whole in which he has an unquestionable place. He may suffer from hunger or suppression, but he does not suffer from the worst of all pain – complete aloneness and doubt.” When the second generation adopted English as the main language and other American customs, some intergenerational conflicts were ex­perienced as the native-born „ethnics” resented their parents’ attachment to the past; and equally: the parents dis­liked their children’s „disloyalty”. In the third and fourth generations, con­flicts and >>>>>
ALEXANDRU NEMOIANU

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NEW BOOK

Recently we received and in­cluded into the Heritage Center’s library the book by Rev. Fr. Dr. Remus Grama, Bishop Policarp Morusca, Jackson, 2005, 233 pages, in English. Basically the book is the English translation of the book dedicated to Bishop Policarp and written by Father Grama, presented in the Octo­ber-December, 2004 issue of the Information Bulletin (page 23). In this new form the personality of Bishop Policarp is made known to those who cannot read in Ro­manian but are interested in the history of our Romanian-Ameri­can group. A.N.
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THE STRUGGLES OF IMMIGRANT SETTLERS

(Reproduced from Sons of the Soil, Ryerson Press, Toronto, Canada, 1959).
Later that evening, just before midnight, it began to rain, and this went on for three days. The immi­grants waited for the rain to stop with gloomy impatience.
God has visited us with his wrath for our sins,” Helena observed on the third day of the downpour. „In the spring the days are numbered: you can’t put off until tomorrow what you should do today; but here we are losing valuable time.”

„Don’t take it so much to heart,” admonished Teklia. „Godknows what he is doing. It’s not for us mortal sinners to question his purposes.””We’re not complaining against God”, said Helena. „All I’m saying is that spring is passing and we haven’t planted a single seed. Your situation is not so bad, for there are only the two of you. But as for us, we’ve many mouths to feed. If we don’t put in a crop soon we ‘ll all die of hunger”.
When your husband urged us to come here it seemed we were to live like lords and be richer than Pavlo Dub”, Walker sneered. „Now it seems we’ll be dressed in nothing but the prairie air and eat nothing but the bark of trees. I’ve always had a pre­monition that this would be our fate”.
And now Hrehory Workun recalled all the bad times that he and the other settlers lived through during the first year of their life in the new land. Like a dense fog they had hung heavily over their daily lives, shut­ting out any sign of hope, which had shone, flickered and disappeared in the illusory heaven of their dreams. But he could never forget the mo­ment when, returning home from work, he had noticed by the roadside a large poplar cross and the newly dug grave of Semen Waker and he had halted, doffed his cap, crossed himself and addressed Solowy and Wakar thus: „Well, friends, Canada now for a certainty is becoming our eternal motherland.”
Don’t cram the bags too full! You won’t be able to grab hold of them. They’ll be too heavy to carry”, Poshtar told Workun, who was packing the grain, bumping the bags on the ground.
Workun understood the reason behind Poshtar’s admonition. It meant five cents
>>>>>

ILLIA KIRIAC

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THE PIONEER WOMAN ON THE PRAIRIES

(Reproduced from A Romanian Pioneer, Alberta Historical Review, Autumn 1973).
Mrs. Veronia Kototailo came with her parents to Canada in 1898 when she was four years old. Her father had decided to leave the village of Boian in Romania because his native land could no longer offer sustenance to him and his growing family. He owned the house they lived in, plus a scrap of land no larger than a small city lot. Over the preceding genera­tions, the original land holding had been divided and sub-divided among members of his family so that there was hardly enough to grow a garden. How could he hope to raise a family on this meager bit of land? Much less, how could he hope to give any­thing to his own children when they were ready to go on their own? For these reasons, he decided to emigrate to Canada. Four other families de­cided to join him, including his fa­ther-in-law with a wife by a second marriage.The sale of his property in Boian brought him enough to pay their pas­sage but little was left over to re­establish them in the new land. They arrived in Canada in the summer of 1898 to settle in a district north-east of Willingdon which was to form the nucleus of the first Romanian settle­ment in Alberta. Though they left behind them the poverty of the Old Country, they also left behind all things dear and familiar to them – their homes, relatives and friends, church and their way of village life. In exchange, they hoped to establish a better life on the 160 acres of land the Canadian Government was giv­ing away for $10 – never dreaming how hard the transition from „rags to riches” would be, nor how long it would
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ANNE B.WOYWITKA
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ARCHIVES AND MEMORIES

Recollections of Luca (Franciuc) Francis of His Experiences, the Romanian Community and Churches in Regina, Saskatchewan as Related to His Daughter, Eugenia Virginia (Francis) Popescul in January, 1978

My father was nineteen years old when he arrived in Regina, Saskatchewan on a warm, sunny weekend in July of 1913. He had left his parents and three older brothers and two sisters at home, which was Mitocul Dragomirnei, Judejul Suceava, Bucovina, Romania. Regina had experienced a damaging cyclone in 1912 and the Romanian newspa­pers carried advertisements about available work. This enticed my fa­ther to come to Canada as he wanted to make his fortune and return home to Romania a rich man. Two younger cousins, loan (John) and Aurel Danis, came to Canada with him but they did not remain in Saskatchewan too long.

They took the train from Romania to Bremen, Germany, crossed the ocean by boat and docked at Halifax, Nova Scotia, where they boarded the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway which brought them to Saskatchewan. He remembers they had fallen asleep and because the train conductor had for­gotten about them, they were left off at Watrous, Saskatchewan. They then had to wait for another train to take them to Regina. Because they did not speak English, it proved helpful that father had studied German in school. The train station in Regina was located, at that time, just west of Albert Street near the Bridge. They decided to walk towards the city and after walking a short distance, they overheard someone hollering in Ro­manian. This is when they met John Moore (a ‘Satean’ but of German parentage) who was in the house-moving business. After work, Mr. Moore took them home which was at 1756 Ottawa Street and then the fol­lowing Sunday he took them to Saint Nicholas Church. The parish priest was Father>>>>>
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ROMANIANS IN ALBERTA – FOREWARD THE PIONEERS
They came west from their scat­tered home districts in Romania, many from Boian and the surrounding ar­eas. They left their native land look­ing for freedom from servitude and toil, leaving behind their cherished relatives and friends.By train, then by ship and railway to western Canada, they continued by oxen, horse, wagon or even on foot to Alberta. They found a virgin land, prairies filled with lakes, mead­ows, woods and hills. They found this land of promise strange and primi­tive, unlike their cherished homeland. In these harsh elements, the strang­ers soon learned the meaning of „sur­vival of the fittest.”

They never imagined how devas­tating the winters could be. Building a home (bordei) was their first chal­lenge. Nature provided them with their first food – berries, nuts, meat from grouse, rabbit, and deer. With hand and spade they earned their daily bread. Time and time again they be­came frustrated, but they rose again to the challenge. No help or external assistance was forthcoming. If money had been available, many may have dreamt of returning to their birth­place.There was work to be done, and it was done with vigor and vitality. Did they have a choice? Not really. But the waving fields of gold eventually brought joy to many of their hearts, and some dreams were realized. Their offspring left home for many rea­sons, and found their places in soci­ety as teachers, businessmen, politi­cians, doctors, nurses, painters or>>>>

Vasile (Bill) Yurko Steve Axani

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HOLY TRINITY CHURCH MaccNUTT , SASKATCHEWAN

(Reproduced from Historical Anniversary Album 1929-1979, The Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America, Jackson, Michigan, 1979).
Bucovinian homesteaders arrived in the area of MacNutt, 159 miles northeast of Regina almost on the Manitoban border, sometime before 1903, and included both Romanians and Ukrainians from the region of Cernaufi. In 1903 about fourteen of these Orthodox pioneers, seven of each nationality, hauled birch logs with teams of oxen from twenty miles away to construct a small wooden church which they named Holy Trin­ity. It is one of the best examples of the architectural style of the Roma­nian homeland: Moldavian in design with log walls and a handmade shingled roof curved at the apse as is common in nineteenth century Ro­manian churches.The parish never grew large, and some dissension meant that part of the Romanian families and many of the Ukrainians would not long re­main with this church, but>>>>
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SAINT NICHOLAS

(Reproduced from Historical Anniversary Album 1929-1979, The Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America, Jackson, Michigan, 1979).
Regina has the largest Romanian community in Saskatchewan. A 1977 estimate reports about 6,500 people of Romanian descent in the province, of whom about 3,500 live in Regina or in outlying areas around this pro­vincial capital. „Regina was the city through which almost all the early immigrants passed on their way to homestead, it was the centre to which they returned for employment when the cash income of the farm was not sufficient, and it is the city to which many have permanently moved”.

The first Romanians in the region came in 1890 and 1891, and Nicolae Zora from Bucovina appears to have been the first. Thirty families were homesteading in the district by 1891, including loan Nicolae, Mihai Zora, Tom McRadu, Samuel Cismacu, Nicuta Donisan, Hie and Emil Bancescu, Alexandru Ursaki, and Gheorghe Lechinsky. Most were from Bucovina and most of them farmed, but others worked as laborers on the city sewer and water systems, on the Parliament Building, or operated small businesses. They passed through>>>>

Saint Elijah the Prophet Lennard, Manitoba

 

(Reproduced from Historical Anniversary Album 1929-1979, The Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America, Jackson, Michigan, 1979).
The beginnings of Sfantul Prooroc Hie go back to Easter Sunday, 1902, when a group of Romanian and Ukrai­nian pioneers held religious services in the open air, and afterwards set to work building a sod church on the prairie, which was finished the next year and served the farmers’ needs until 1908. In that year, on two acres of land donated by Hie Burla, a fin­ished lumber and plaster church was raised in the rounded style of Bucovina, and the little building deco­rated with icons brought from the homeland. It was given its patron name in honor of the first settler and giver of the property, and with this the parish was officially founded by twenty members on July 1, 1908. Voting members rose to thirty-one by 1910, and to fifty ten years later, which was about as high as the par­ish would go, maintaining a mem­bership of never less than thirty nor more than fifty from then on. The church was blessed by Bishop Policarp in 1936, at the time when Father Glicheric Popa was pastor. On an additional acre given by loan Paulenko, Father Popa and the pa­rishioners put their funds together in 1939 and built a comfortable coun­try-style parish house a few yards from the church.

In the early 1950s the new genera­tion of Romanians in Lennard, see­ing that the old church no longer suited their needs, moved toward construc­tion a new one, and in 1952 laid the foundation of their present building, to be 30 feet by 60 feet in area, with a basement hall for dinners, religious school, and choir rehearsal. Parish­ioner Peter Gaber designed the plans, which were then executed by the members themselves in collaboration with the Saint Lazar contractor P. Dupont. Eventually the complete cost of the work amounted to $20,000 for materials – however, if the parish­ioners had not done most of the job themselves, this figure would have been doubled.

These hardworking farmers did not have great sums to invest, and thus the construction of the church, in order to completely finish, equip, and deco­rate the building, was spread out over a period of ten years, until 1962. The basic framework, though, was ready to be blessed in 1954 by Archimandrite Daniel Maxim and Fathers Glicherie Popa and Petru Tatoiu. In the years which followed, every member of Saint Elijah took part in gathering the needed monies for their parish building program. The Ladies Auxiliary, especially, put on a whole series of dinners, parties, bazaars, while the men helped with carpentry and masonry in their free time, so that bit by bit the finished church took shape. Some days were spent on another very important project. In true Romanian fashion, the original 1908 church was not razed, but moved to the side in the church yard, where it is now a re­vered shrine, and may one day, hope­fully, be a museum. It is not far from the cemetery laid out on the grounds, separated from the new church by a tall stand of tree.>>>

Sir Clifford Sifton :” Only Farmers need apply”
(Reproduced from Maclean’s Magazine, April 1, 1922.)
It is a consoling thought, sancti­fied by long usage, that if everything is not satisfactory with regard to Immigration, it can always be blamed on the government or the tariff. The fact remains, however, that a country can only get the kind of immigrants which are suitable to it and can only hold and assimilate them if they have been wisely chosen…

People who do not know anything at all about the policy which was followed by the Department of the Interior under my direction quite commonly make the statement that my policy for Immigration was quan­tity and not quality. As a matter of fact, that statement is the direct op­posite of the fact. In those days set­tlers were sought from three sources; one was the United States. The Ameri­can settlers did not need sifting: they were of the finest quality and the most desirable settlers. In Great Brit­ain we confined our efforts very largely to the North of England and Scotland, and for the purpose of sift­ing the settlers we doubled the bo­nuses to the agents in the North of England, and cut them down as much as possible in the South. The result was that we got a fairly steady stream of people from North of England and from Scotland and they were from the very best settlers in the world. I do not wish to suggest that we did not get many very excellent people from the more southerly portions of England, but they were people who came on their own initiative largely, which was the best possible guaran­tee of success.

Our work was largely done in the North. Then, came the continent – where the great emigrating center was Hamburg. Steamships go there to load up with people who are desirous of leaving Europe. The situation is a peculiar one. If one should examine twenty people who turn up at Ham­burg to emigrate, he might find one escaped murderer, three or four wast­ers and ne’er-do-wells, some very poor shop-keepers, artisans or labor­ers and there might be one or two stout, hardy peasants in sheep-skin coats. Obviously, the peasants are the men that are wanted here. Now, with regard to those twenty men, no one knows anything about them except the shipping agents. These man are sent in from outlying local agencies all over Europe. They arrive at Ham­burg and the booking agents have their names and full descriptions of who they are and where they came from. No one else has this informa­tion.

We made an arrangement with the booking agencies in Hamburg, under which they winnowed out this flood of people, picked out the agricultur­ists and peasants and sent them to Canada, sending nobody else. We paid, I think, $5 per head for the farmer and $2 per head for the other members of the family.

This arrangement was carried out through the agents of a Company known as the North Atlantic Trading Company which was merely a com­pany incorporated by the agents and employees of the booking houses. The steamship companies did not like this arrangement. The Canadian steam­ship agents did not like it. The result of the arrangement was that they lost a lot of business because immigra­tion which was not useful to us was sent to other countries in very large volume. Eventually a political agita­tion was begun against the North Atlantic Trading Company and the government finally cancelled the con­tract and abandoned my policy. The policy was completely and perfectly successful while it lasted. There was not one-half of one per cent of the people we got from Hamburg who were not actual agriculturists. Almost without exception they went on farms and practically without exception they are on farms yet, if they are alive. If not, their children are there.>>>>>>>

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Revista STUDII ROMANO-AMERICANE reproduce in forma selectiva publicatia ” INFORMATIVE BULLETIN ” , fondata de Arhiepiscopul Valerian Trifa si care pana azi apare in editia ” pe hartie ” avand ca editor ” Centrul de studii si documentare al romanilor-americani < Valerian D . Trifa >/ Romanian-American Heritage Center ” , din Jackson – Michigan , SUA . Editia on-line este realizata prin colaborarea dintre editor si ARP- ASOCIATIA ROMANA PENTRU PATRIMONIU , Bucuresti -Romania . Colaborari , mesaje si opinii >aici>>>>

 

 

Entry filed under: history. Tags: .

TRAIAN LASCU : ” EDMOND AGOPIAN A CANADIAN-ROMANIAN WHO MAKES US PROUD „


” INFORMATION BULLETIN ” o ” Romanian – American Heritage Center ” , Jackson , Michigan o Editor : Alexandru Nemoianu

” VATRA ”

____________________________ Adunarea Generala si bilant (1 Martie 2008 ) ____________________________ ____________________________
Revista STUDII ROMANO-AMERICANE reproduce in forma selectiva publicatia " INFORMATION BULLETIN " , fondata de Arhiepiscopul Valerian Trifa si care pana azi apare in editia " pe hartie " avand ca editor " Centrul de studii si documentare al romanilor-americani < Valerian D . Trifa >/ Romanian-American Heritage Center " , din Jackson - Michigan , SUA . Editia on-line este realizata prin colaborarea dintre editor si ARP- ASOCIATIA ROMANA PENTRU PATRIMONIU , Bucuresti -Romania . **** ________________________ Colaborari , mesaje si opinii >aici>>>> _________________________ __________________________

ENGLISH PAGES / PAGINI ROMANESTI

NUMERE ISTORICE DIN ” INFORMATION BULLETIN ”

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PAGINI DE ISTORIE RECENTA : CENTRUL DE STUDII ŞI DOCUMENTARE AL ROMÂNILOR-AMERICANI „VALERIAN. D. TRIFA. ROMANIAN-AMERICAN HERITAGE CENTER“

SALA DE CONFERINTE ________________________

În anii şaizeci şi şaptezeci ai veacului al XX-lea în cultura americană a intervenit o schimbare privind modul de înţelegere a căii prin care s-a alcătuit şi se alcătuieşte naţiunea americană.Conceptul „furnalului“ american (după care toţi cei veniţi în Lumea Nouă s-ar contopi într-o nouă entitate) a fost înlocuit cu o mult mai convingatoare şi înţeleaptă concepţie. Această concepţie afirmă că fiecare grup etnic şi-a adus şi îşi aduce contribuţia la a face America mai diversă, mai frumoasă şi mai puternică. >>>>>Alexandru Nemoianu

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EDITOR – ” ROMANIAN-AMERICAN HERITAGE CENTER „

INFORMATION BULLETIN EDITORIAL COMMITTEE : Most Rev. Archbishop Nathaniel , Chairman * Alexandru Nemoianu, Editor * Members : Archdeacon David Oancea * Hieromonk Calinic Berger, PhD. * Contributors : Joanne Bock , Ph.D . , Gh . I . Florescu , Ph.D ., Rev . Dr . Remus Grama , Traian Lascu , Alexandra Roceric Ph .D . , Aurel Sasu, Ph . D . , Rev . Dr . Cornel Todeasa OFFICERS : Most Rev . Archbishop Nathaniel , Chairman * Archdeacon David Oancea , President * Hierodeacon Calinic Berger, Ph.D. Vice President * Rev. Dr. Remus Grama , Vice President * Larissa Nemoianu, Secretary * Alexandru Nemoianu , Treastirer MEMBERS : Petru Lupsor , Mary Lynn Pac-Urar ( Legal Advisor ) , Alexandru Nemoianu , Secretary Resident Hislorian TRUSTEES : Most Rev . Archbishop Nathaniel * Hierodeacon Calinic Berger, Rev. Dr. Remus Grama, V . Rev . Fr . Laurence Lazar , Petru Lupsor , Alexandru Nemoianu , Larissa Nemoianu , Archdeacon David Oancea , Mary Lynn Pac-Urar , Armand Scala ________________________ * Continutul articolelor si studiilor publicate In "Buletinul Informativ " (inclusiv in editia on-line) este expresia opiniilor autorilor acestora si nu a Comitetului Editorial sau a "Romanian - American Heritage Center " ________________________ ____________________________

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